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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5471-5484; doi:10.3390/ijms10125471
Article

Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

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 and 2
Received: 7 November 2009; in revised form: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology)
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Abstract: Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.
Keywords: immune response; molds; mycotoxins; clinical symptoms immune response; molds; mycotoxins; clinical symptoms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Edmondson, D.A.; Barrios, C.S.; Brasel, T.L.; Straus, D.C.; Kurup, V.P.; Fink, J.N. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5471-5484.

AMA Style

Edmondson DA, Barrios CS, Brasel TL, Straus DC, Kurup VP, Fink JN. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5471-5484.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Edmondson, David A.; Barrios, Christy S.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Straus, David C.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Fink, Jordan N. 2009. "Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 12: 5471-5484.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert