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Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds
The Allergy/Immunology Department at Ear, Nose and Throat Associates of North Central Wisconsin, 2801 Westhill Dr. Wausau, WI 54401, USA
Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, Allergy and Immunology Division, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street Mail stop 6591, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA
Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Services 151-1, VA Medical Center, 5000 W. National Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2009; in revised form: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Abstract: Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.
Keywords: immune response; molds; mycotoxins; clinical symptoms
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Edmondson, D.A.; Barrios, C.S.; Brasel, T.L.; Straus, D.C.; Kurup, V.P.; Fink, J.N. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5471-5484.
Edmondson DA, Barrios CS, Brasel TL, Straus DC, Kurup VP, Fink JN. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5471-5484.
Edmondson, David A.; Barrios, Christy S.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Straus, David C.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Fink, Jordan N. 2009. "Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 12: 5471-5484.