Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(12), 5471-5484; doi:10.3390/ijms10125471

Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

1 The Allergy/Immunology Department at Ear, Nose and Throat Associates of North Central Wisconsin, 2801 Westhill Dr. Wausau, WI 54401, USA 2 Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, Allergy and Immunology Division, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA 3 Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4th Street Mail stop 6591, Lubbock, TX 79430, USA 5 Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Services 151-1, VA Medical Center, 5000 W. National Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2009; in revised form: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
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Abstract: Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.
Keywords: immune response; molds; mycotoxins; clinical symptoms

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MDPI and ACS Style

Edmondson, D.A.; Barrios, C.S.; Brasel, T.L.; Straus, D.C.; Kurup, V.P.; Fink, J.N. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 5471-5484.

AMA Style

Edmondson DA, Barrios CS, Brasel TL, Straus DC, Kurup VP, Fink JN. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(12):5471-5484.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Edmondson, David A.; Barrios, Christy S.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Straus, David C.; Kurup, Viswanath P.; Fink, Jordan N. 2009. "Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 12: 5471-5484.

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