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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092340

Optimization of Antioxidant and Skin-Whitening Compounds Extraction Condition from Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Mealworm)

1
Department of Overseas Study Program, Hanyoung Foreign Language High School, Dongnam-ro 832, Kangdong-gu, Seoul 05279, Korea
2
Division of Material Development, ByTheLab. Cosmetics, 7-2, 710 ho, KwongKyo Central Rd., Yongtong-gu, Suwon-si 16512, Korea
3
IT Convergence Materials R&BD Group, Korean Institute of Industrial Technology, 89 Yangdaegiro-gil, Ipjang-myeon, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan-si 31056, Chungnam, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract

Skin-whitening ingredients are a very important part of the development of functional cosmetics and a wide variety of raw materials are used. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in the animal melanogenic pathway that is the rate-limiting step for the production of melanin. Several synthetic and naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors have been studied for skin-whitening. The development of natural agents is becoming more important due to the disadvantages of synthetics such as high cytotoxicity, insufficient penetration power, and low activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant, and tyrosinase inhibition activity of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larvae) extract, and the subsequent optimization of the extraction condition using statistically-based optimization. The major extraction variables extraction temperature, time, and ethanol concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that optimum extraction temperature of 88.1 °C, extraction time of 43.7 min, and ethanol concentration of 72.0 v/v%, provided the predicted maximum levels of total phenolic compounds (TPC) of 5.41 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW) and tyrosinase inhibition activity (TIA) of 82.4%. From the validation experiment, 5.61 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW), tyrosinase inhibition of 79.6 ± 3.3%, and radical scavenging activity of 91.8 ± 5.1 μg/mL were found and showed to be very similar to the predicted values. These results suggest that mealworm has great potential as a source of bioactive compounds which could be used as cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tenebrio molitor; phenolic compound; antioxidant; whitening; extraction; optimization Tenebrio molitor; phenolic compound; antioxidant; whitening; extraction; optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, J.J.; Kim, K.S.; Yu, B.J. Optimization of Antioxidant and Skin-Whitening Compounds Extraction Condition from Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Mealworm). Molecules 2018, 23, 2340.

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