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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2123; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092123

Relationships between Structures of Condensed Tannins from Texas Legumes and Methane Production During In Vitro Rumen Digestion

1
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, 110 Waters, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
3
USDA-ARS, U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract

Previous studies showed that a series of purified condensed tannins (CTs) from warm-season perennial legumes exhibited high variability in their modulation of methane production during in vitro rumen digestion. The molecular weight differences between these CTs did not provide correlation with either the in vitro CH4 production or the ability to precipitate bovine serum albumin. In an effort to delineate other structure-activity relationships from these methane abatement experiments, the structures of purified CTs from these legumes were assessed with a combination of methanolysis, quantitative thiolysis, 1H-13C HSQC NMR spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution MALDI-TOF MS. The composition of these CTs is very diverse: procyanidin/prodelphinidin (PC/PD) ratios ranged from 98/2 to 2/98; cis/trans ratios ranged from 98/2 to 34/66; mean degrees of polymerization ranged from 6 to 39; and % galloylation ranged from 0 to 75%. No strong correlation was observed between methane production and the protein precipitation capabilities of the CT towards three different proteins (BSA, lysozyme, and alfalfa leaf protein) at ruminal pH. However, a strong non-linear correlation was observed for the inhibition of methane production versus the antioxidant activity in plant sample containing typical PC- and PD-type CTs. The modulation of methane production could not be correlated to the CT structure (PC/PD or cis/trans ratios and extent of galloylation). The most active plant in methane abatement was Acacia angustissima, which contained CT, presenting an unusual challenge as it was resistant to standard thiolytic degradation conditions and exhibited an atypical set of cross-peak signals in the 2D NMR. The MALDI analysis supported a 5-deoxy flavan-3-ol-based structure for the CT from this plant. View Full-Text
Keywords: proanthocyanidins; condensed tannins; thiolysis; NMR spectroscopy; ultrahigh-resolution negative mode MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; antioxidant; ORAC assay; Acacia; forage legume proanthocyanidins; condensed tannins; thiolysis; NMR spectroscopy; ultrahigh-resolution negative mode MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; antioxidant; ORAC assay; Acacia; forage legume
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Naumann, H.; Sepela, R.; Rezaire, A.; Masih, S.E.; Zeller, W.E.; Reinhardt, L.A.; Robe, J.T.; Sullivan, M.L.; Hagerman, A.E. Relationships between Structures of Condensed Tannins from Texas Legumes and Methane Production During In Vitro Rumen Digestion. Molecules 2018, 23, 2123.

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