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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2107; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092107

Chitosan Nanoparticles with Encapsulated Natural and UF-Purified Annatto and Saffron for the Preparation of UV Protective Cosmetic Emulsions

1
Laboratory of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers and Dyes, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jyh-Ping Chen
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications)
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Abstract

The aim of the present work is to evaluate the preparation of sunscreen emulsions based on chitosan (CS) nanoparticles with annatto, ultrafiltrated (UF) annatto, saffron, and ultrafiltrated saffron. Ionic gelation was used for the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles, while their morphological characteristics and physicochemical properties were evaluated via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results showed that the prepared nanoparticles ranged from ~150 to ~500 nm and had a spherical or irregular shape. In the case of annatto and UF annatto, due to the formation of H-bonds, the sunscreen agents were amorphously dispersed within CS nanoparticles, while in the case of saffron and UF saffron, crystalline dispersion was observed. All encapsulated materials had good thermal stability as well as color stability. In a further step, sunscreen emulsions were prepared based on the formed CS-sunscreen nanoparticles and evaluated for their stability in terms of pH and viscosity, along with their ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection ability in terms of sun protection factor (SPF). All prepared emulsions showed low cytotoxicity and good storage stability for up to 90 days, while minimum sunscreen protection was observed with SPF values varying from 2.15 to 4.85. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; nanoparticles; sunscreen; annatto; saffron; sun protection factor chitosan; nanoparticles; sunscreen; annatto; saffron; sun protection factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ntohogian, S.; Gavriliadou, V.; Christodoulou, E.; Nanaki, S.; Lykidou, S.; Naidis, P.; Mischopoulou, L.; Barmpalexis, P.; Nikolaidis, N.; Bikiaris, D.N. Chitosan Nanoparticles with Encapsulated Natural and UF-Purified Annatto and Saffron for the Preparation of UV Protective Cosmetic Emulsions. Molecules 2018, 23, 2107.

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