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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1843;

Squalene Cyclases and Cycloartenol Synthases from Polystichum polyblepharum and Six Allied Ferns

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Ferns are the most primitive of all vascular plants. One of the characteristics distinguishing them from flowering plants is its triterpene metabolism. Most cyclic triterpenes in ferns are hydrocarbons derived from the direct cyclization of squalene by squalene cyclases (SCs). Both ferns and more complex plants share sterols and biosynthetic enzymes, such as cycloartenol synthases (CASs). Polystichum belongs to Dryopteridaceae, and is one of the most species-rich of all fern genera. Several Polystichum ferns in Japan are classified as one of three possible chemotypes, based on their triterpene profiles. In this study, we describe the molecular cloning and functional characterization of cDNAs encoding a SC (PPH) and a CAS (PPX) from the type species Polystichum polyblepharum. Heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris revealed that PPH and PPX are hydroxyhopane synthase and CAS, respectively. By using the PPH and PPX sequences, we successfully isolated SC- and CAS-encoding cDNAs from six Polystichum ferns. Phylogenetic analysis, based on SCs and oxidosqualene cyclase sequences, suggested that the Polystichum subclade in the fern SC and CAS clades reflects the chemotype—but not the molecular phylogeny constructed using plastid molecular markers. These results show a possible relation between triterpenes and their biosynthetic enzymes in Polystichum. View Full-Text
Keywords: squalene cyclase; cycloartenol synthase; triterpene; fern; Polystichum squalene cyclase; cycloartenol synthase; triterpene; fern; Polystichum

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shinozaki, J.; Nakene, T.; Takano, A. Squalene Cyclases and Cycloartenol Synthases from Polystichum polyblepharum and Six Allied Ferns. Molecules 2018, 23, 1843.

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