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Molecules 2018, 23(6), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061372

Influence of Grape Berry Maturity on Juice and Base Wine Composition and Foaming Properties of Sparkling Wines from the Champagne Region

1
Laboratory of Oenology, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims CEDEX 2, France
2
Institut Œnologique de Champagne, 9 Rue du Commerce, 51350 Cormontreuil, France
3
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Unité Mixte de Recherches No. 1083, Sciences pour l’Œnologie, 2 Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
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Abstract

In sparkling wine cool-climate regions like Champagne, it is sometimes necessary to pick the healthy grape clusters that have a relatively low maturity level to avoid the deleterious effects of Botrytis cinerea. In such conditions, we know that classical oenological parameters (sugars, pH, total acidity) may change but there is little information concerning the impact of grape berry maturity on wine proteins and foaming properties. Therefore, healthy grapes (Chardonnay and Pinot meunier) in 2015 and 2016 were picked at different maturity levels within the range of common industrial maturity for potential alcohol content 8–11% v/v in the Champagne region. Base wine protein content and foamability, and oenological parameters in grape juice and their corresponding base wines, were investigated. The results showed that base wine protein contents (analyzed by the Bradford method and by electrophoresis) and foamability were higher when the grapes were riper. The Pearson’s correlation test found significant positive correlations (r = 0.890–0.997, p < 0.05) between Chardonnay grape berry maturity degree (MD) and base wine foamability in both vintages. Strong correlations between MD and most of the oenological parameters in grape juice and base wine were also found for the two cultivars. Under the premise of guaranteed grape health, delaying harvest date is an oenological decision capable of improving base wine protein content and foamability. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape berry maturity; protein; foam; grape juice; base wine; sparkling wine; Pearson’s correlation grape berry maturity; protein; foam; grape juice; base wine; sparkling wine; Pearson’s correlation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, P.-H.; Vrigneau, C.; Salmon, T.; Hoang, D.A.; Boulet, J.-C.; Jégou, S.; Marchal, R. Influence of Grape Berry Maturity on Juice and Base Wine Composition and Foaming Properties of Sparkling Wines from the Champagne Region. Molecules 2018, 23, 1372.

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