Next Article in Journal
Identification and Expression of miRNAs Related to Female Flower Induction in Walnut (Juglans regia L.)
Next Article in Special Issue
Membrane Fatty Acid Composition and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Marine Hydrocarbonoclastic Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 Grown on Diesel, Biodiesel and Rapeseed Oil as Carbon Sources
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of Insecticidal Constituents from the Essential Oil from the Aerial Parts Stachys riederi var. japonica
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy-Protein Supplementation and Lactation Affect Fatty Acid Profile of Liver and Adipose Tissue of Dairy Cows
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(5), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23051201

Interrelationships among Fatty Acid Composition, Staphyloxanthin Content, Fluidity, and Carbon Flow in the Staphylococcus aureus Membrane

School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61761, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carla C. C. R. de Carvalho and Maria José Caramujo
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Multiple Roles of Fatty Acids)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3728 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Fatty acids play a major role in determining membrane biophysical properties. Staphylococcus aureus produces branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFAs), and can directly incorporate exogenous SCSFAs and straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids (SCUFAs). Many S. aureus strains produce the triterpenoid pigment staphyloxanthin, and the balance of BCFAs, SCSFAs and staphyloxanthin determines membrane fluidity. Here, we investigated the relationship of fatty acid and carotenoid production in S. aureus using a pigmented strain (Pig1), its carotenoid-deficient mutant (Pig1ΔcrtM) and the naturally non-pigmented Staphylococcus argenteus that lacks carotenoid biosynthesis genes and is closely related to S. aureus. Fatty acid compositions in all strains were similar under a given culture condition indicating that staphyloxanthin does not influence fatty acid composition. Strain Pig1 had decreased membrane fluidity as measured by fluorescence anisotropy compared to the other strains under all conditions indicating that staphyloxanthin helps maintain membrane rigidity. We could find no evidence for correlation of expression of crtM and fatty acid biosynthesis genes. Supplementation of medium with glucose increased SCSFA production and decreased BCFA and staphyloxanthin production, whereas acetate-supplementation also decreased BCFAs but increased staphyloxanthin production. We believe that staphyloxanthin levels are influenced more through metabolic regulation than responding to fatty acids incorporated into the membrane. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane fatty acids composition; Staphylococcus aureus; staphyloxanthin; membrane fluidity; metabolic regulation membrane fatty acids composition; Staphylococcus aureus; staphyloxanthin; membrane fluidity; metabolic regulation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tiwari, K.B.; Gatto, C.; Wilkinson, B.J. Interrelationships among Fatty Acid Composition, Staphyloxanthin Content, Fluidity, and Carbon Flow in the Staphylococcus aureus Membrane. Molecules 2018, 23, 1201.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top