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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 840; doi:10.3390/molecules23040840

Antibacterial Activity of Emulsified Pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Peel Oil and Water-Soluble Chitosan on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

1
Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, No. 2 Pei-Ning Rd., Keelung 202, Taiwan
2
Department of Food Technology and Marketing, Taipei University of Marine Technology, No. 212, Sec. 9, Yan Ping N. Rd., Taipei 111, Taiwan
3
Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, No. 64, Wunhua Rd, Yunlin 632, Taiwan
4
Department of Health Promotion and Gerontological Care, Taipei University of Marine Technology, No. 212, Sec. 9, Yan Ping N. Rd., Taipei 111, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniela Rigano
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents)
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Abstract

This study utilized pomelo steam distillation to isolate pomelo peel essential oil. The constituents were then analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil emulsions at different homogenizer speed conditions and concentrations of water-soluble chitosan (degree of acetylation, DA = 54.8%) against S. aureus and E. coli was examined. Analysis of the essential oil composition identified a total of 33 compounds with the main constituent, limonene accounting for 87.5% (940.07 mg/g) of the total. The pomelo peel oil was emulsified through homogenization at 24,000 rpm, resulting in a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for E. coli that was 1.9 times lower than that of the essential oil without homogenization. In addition, a mixture of 0.4% essential oil emulsion and 0.03% water-soluble chitosan had the strongest synergetic antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli at pH 7.4. In comparison with chitosan alone, the MIC value of this mixture was significantly 2.4 and 2.5 times lower. Hence, this study suggests using a mixture of emulsified pomelo peel oil and water-soluble chitosan to develop a novel natural food preservative, and that the processability of food, as well as the economic value of the byproducts of the Taiwan Matou pomelo and chitosan, could be increased. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; pomelo; antibacterial activity; emulsified essential oil; water-soluble chitosan essential oil; pomelo; antibacterial activity; emulsified essential oil; water-soluble chitosan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Chen, G.-W.; Lin, Y.-H.; Lin, C.-H.; Jen, H.-C. Antibacterial Activity of Emulsified Pomelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Peel Oil and Water-Soluble Chitosan on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Molecules 2018, 23, 840.

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