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Molecules 2018, 23(3), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030695

Gallic Acid Content and an Antioxidant Mechanism Are Responsible for the Antiproliferative Activity of ‘Ataulfo’ Mango Peel on LS180 Cells

1
Coordination of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Center for Research in Food and Development, A.C. (CIAD), Carretera a la Victoria Km 0.6. C.P., Hermosillo 83304, Mexico
2
Department of Biological Chemistry., Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N Col. Centro, C.P., Hermosillo 83000, Mexico
3
Biomedical Sciences Institute, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Anillo Envolvente del Pronaf y Estocolmo S/N, Ciudad Juárez 32310, Chihuahua, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract

Mango “Ataulfo” peel is a rich source of polyphenols (PP), with antioxidant and anti-cancer properties; however, it is unknown whether such antiproliferative activity is related to PP’s antioxidant activity. The content (HPLC-DAD), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC), and antiproliferative activities (MTT) of free (FP) and chemically-released PP from mango ‘Ataulfo’ peel after alkaline (AKP) and acid (AP) hydrolysis, were evaluated. AKP fraction was higher (µg/g DW) in gallic acid (GA; 23,816 ± 284) than AP (5610 ± 8) of FR (not detected) fractions. AKP fraction and GA showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH/FRAP/ORAC) and GA’s antioxidant activity follows a single electron transfer (SET) mechanism. AKP and GA also showed the best antiproliferative activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180; IC50 (µg/mL) 138.2 ± 2.5 and 45.7 ± 5.2) and mouse connective cells (L929; 93.5 ± 7.7 and 65.3 ± 1.2); Cheminformatics confirmed the hydrophilic nature (LogP, 0.6) and a good absorption capacity (75%) for GA. Data suggests that GA’s antiproliferative activity appears to be related to its antioxidant mechanism, although other mechanisms after its absorption could also be involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic compounds; by-products; biological activity; LS180; colon cancer; antioxidant mechanism; single electron transfer (SET); hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) phenolic compounds; by-products; biological activity; LS180; colon cancer; antioxidant mechanism; single electron transfer (SET); hydrogen atom transfer (HAT)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Velderrain-Rodríguez, G.R.; Torres-Moreno, H.; Villegas-Ochoa, M.A.; Ayala-Zavala, J.F.; Robles-Zepeda, R.E.; Wall-Medrano, A.; González-Aguilar, G.A. Gallic Acid Content and an Antioxidant Mechanism Are Responsible for the Antiproliferative Activity of ‘Ataulfo’ Mango Peel on LS180 Cells. Molecules 2018, 23, 695.

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