Next Article in Journal
Chiral Thioxanthones as Modulators of P-glycoprotein: Synthesis and Enantioselectivity Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Preparation, Characterization and Biological Applications of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles with Chitosan-Fucoidan Coating
Previous Article in Journal
Isothiocyanates: An Overview of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Infections
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Chitosan-Based Hydrogel and Photodynamic Inactivation against Propionibacterium acnes
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(3), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030625

Preparation of Well-Dispersed Chitosan/Alginate Hollow Multilayered Microcapsules for Enhanced Cellular Internalization

1
Department of Chemistry, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Department of Chemistry and CQ-VR, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [4257 KB, uploaded 10 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Hollow multilayered capsules have shown massive potential for being used in the biomedical and biotechnology fields, in applications such as cellular internalization, intracellular trafficking, drug delivery, or tissue engineering. In particular, hollow microcapsules, developed by resorting to porous calcium carbonate sacrificial templates, natural-origin building blocks and the prominent Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology, have attracted increasing attention owing to their key features. However, these microcapsules revealed a great tendency to aggregate, which represents a major hurdle when aiming for cellular internalization and intracellular therapeutics delivery. Herein, we report the preparation of well-dispersed polysaccharide-based hollow multilayered microcapsules by combining the LbL technique with an optimized purification process. Cationic chitosan (CHT) and anionic alginate (ALG) were chosen as the marine origin polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility and structural similarity to the extracellular matrices of living tissues. Moreover, the inexpensive and highly versatile LbL technology was used to fabricate core-shell microparticles and hollow multilayered microcapsules, with precise control over their composition and physicochemical properties, by repeating the alternate deposition of both materials. The microcapsules’ synthesis procedure was optimized to extensively reduce their natural aggregation tendency, as shown by the morphological analysis monitored by advanced microscopy techniques. The well-dispersed microcapsules showed an enhanced uptake by fibroblasts, opening new perspectives for cellular internalization. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; alginate; marine origin polysaccharides; biocompatible polymers; CaCO3 porous microparticles; layer-by-layer assembly; hollow multilayered microcapsules; non-aggregated microcapsules; cellular internalization chitosan; alginate; marine origin polysaccharides; biocompatible polymers; CaCO3 porous microparticles; layer-by-layer assembly; hollow multilayered microcapsules; non-aggregated microcapsules; cellular internalization
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ribeiro, C.; Borges, J.; Costa, A.M.S.; Gaspar, V.M.; Bermudez, V.Z.; Mano, J.F. Preparation of Well-Dispersed Chitosan/Alginate Hollow Multilayered Microcapsules for Enhanced Cellular Internalization. Molecules 2018, 23, 625.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top