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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020473

Assessment of Chitosan-Based Hydrogel and Photodynamic Inactivation against Propionibacterium acnes

1
Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14800-903 Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14800-903 Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract

Chitosan (CH) is a biopolymer that exhibits a number of interesting properties such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity and is also a promising platform for the incorporation of photosensitizing agents. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial activity of chitosan hydrogel formulation alone and in combination with the methylene blue (MB) associated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against planktonic and biofilm phase of Propionibacterium acnes. Suspensions were sensitized with 12.5, 25.0, 37.5, 50.0 μg/mL of MB for 10 min and biofilms to 75, 100 and 150 μg/mL for 30 min then exposed to red light (660 nm) at 90 J/cm2 and 150 J/cm2 respectively. After treatments, survival fractions were calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units. The lethal effect of aPDT associated with CH hydrogel in planktonic phase was achieved with 12.5 µg/mL MB and 1.9 log10 biofilm reduction using 75 µg/mL MB. Rheological studies showed that formulations exhibited pseudoplastic non-Newtonian behavior without thixotropy. Bioadhesion test evidenced that the formulations are highly adhesive to skin and the incorporation of MB did not influence the bioadhesive force of the formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan hydrogel; photodynamic therapy; methylene blue; Propionibacterium acnes chitosan hydrogel; photodynamic therapy; methylene blue; Propionibacterium acnes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Frade, M.L.; de Annunzio, S.R.; Calixto, G.M.F.; Victorelli, F.D.; Chorilli, M.; Fontana, C.R. Assessment of Chitosan-Based Hydrogel and Photodynamic Inactivation against Propionibacterium acnes. Molecules 2018, 23, 473.

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