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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020362

Biodegradable and Biocompatible Polyhydroxy-alkanoates (PHA): Auspicious Microbial Macromolecules for Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Applications

1
Office of Research Management and Service, c/o Institute of Chemistry, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28/III, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
Association for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Technologies—ARENA, Inffeldgasse 21b, 8010 Graz, Austria
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biodegradable Polymers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [629 KB, uploaded 8 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are bio-based microbial biopolyesters; their stiffness, elasticity, crystallinity and degradability are tunable by the monomeric composition, selection of microbial production strain, substrates, process parameters during production, and post-synthetic processing; they display biological alternatives for diverse technomers of petrochemical origin. This, together with the fact that their monomeric and oligomeric in vivo degradation products do not exert any toxic or elsewhere negative effect to living cells or tissue of humans or animals, makes them highly stimulating for various applications in the medical field. This article provides an overview of PHA application in the therapeutic, surgical and tissue engineering area, and reviews strategies to produce PHA at purity levels high enough to be used in vivo. Tested applications of differently composed PHA and advanced follow-up products as carrier materials for controlled in vivo release of anti-cancer drugs or antibiotics, as scaffolds for tissue engineering, as guidance conduits for nerve repair or as enhanced sutures, implants or meshes are discussed from both a biotechnological and a material-scientific perspective. The article also describes the use of traditional processing techniques for production of PHA-based medical devices, such as melt-spinning, melt extrusion, or solvent evaporation, and emerging processing techniques like 3D-printing, computer-aided wet-spinning, laser perforation, and electrospinning. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; biodegradability; biopolyesters; biopolymers; composites; drug release; implants; polyhydroxyalkanoates; scaffolds; tissue engineering biocompatibility; biodegradability; biopolyesters; biopolymers; composites; drug release; implants; polyhydroxyalkanoates; scaffolds; tissue engineering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Koller, M. Biodegradable and Biocompatible Polyhydroxy-alkanoates (PHA): Auspicious Microbial Macromolecules for Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Applications. Molecules 2018, 23, 362.

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