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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 358; doi:10.3390/molecules23020358

Antifungal Activity of Natural Volatile Organic Compounds against Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Peronophythora litchii

1
Department of Plant Pathology/Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
3
Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences Guangzhou Experimental Station, Guangzhou 510140, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
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Abstract

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is a commercially important fruit but its production and quality are restricted by litchi downy blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Peronophythora litchii Chen. Volatile substances produced by a biocontrol antinomycetes Streptomyces fimicarius BWL-H1 could inhibited P. litchii growth and development both in vitro and in detached litchi leaf and fruit infection assay. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses indicated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from BWL-H1 resulted in severe damage to the endomembrane system and cell wall of P. litchii cells in vitro and abnormal morphology of appressoria, as well as deformed new hyphae in infection process. VOCs could suppress mycelial growth, sporulation, while with no obvious effect on sporangia germination. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometric analyses, 32 VOCs were identified from S. fimicarius BWL-H1, the most abundant of which was phenylethyl alcohol. Eight VOCs, including phenylethyl alcohol, ethyl phenylacetate, methyl anthranilate, α-copaene, caryophyllene, humulene, methyl salicylate and 4-ethylphenol, that are commercially available, were purchased and their bioactivity was tested individually. Except for humulene, the other seven tested volatile compounds shown strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth, sporulation, sporangia germination and germ-tube growth of P. litchii. Especially, 4-ethylphenol showed the highest inhibitory effect on sporulation at a very low concentration of 2 µL/L. Overall, our results provided a better understanding of the mode of action of volatiles from BWL-H1 on P. litchii, and showed that volatiles from BWL-H1 have the potential for control of postharvest litchi downy blight. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptomyces fimicarius BWL-H1; volatiles; Peronophythora litchii; litchi downy blight Streptomyces fimicarius BWL-H1; volatiles; Peronophythora litchii; litchi downy blight
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xing, M.; Zheng, L.; Deng, Y.; Xu, D.; Xi, P.; Li, M.; Kong, G.; Jiang, Z. Antifungal Activity of Natural Volatile Organic Compounds against Litchi Downy Blight Pathogen Peronophythora litchii. Molecules 2018, 23, 358.

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