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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020354

Stability of Anthocyanins and Their Degradation Products from Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine under Gastrointestinal pH and Temperature Conditions

1,†
,
1,2,3,†
,
1,2,3,* , 1,2,3,* , 1
,
1
and
1
1
College of Enology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
2
Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti-Viniculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
3
Heyang Viticulture Experimental Station, Northwest A&F University, Heyang 715300, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract

This study investigated the stability of wine anthocyanins under simulated gastrointestinal pH and temperature conditions, and further studied the evolution of anthocyanin degradation products through simulated digestive conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between anthocyanins’ structure and their digestive stability. Results showed that a total of 22 anthocyanins were identified in wine and most of these anthocyanins remained stable under simulated gastric digestion process. However, a dramatic concentration decrease happened to these anthocyanins during simulated intestinal digestion. The stability of anthocyanins in digestive process appeared to be related to their structure. The methoxy group in the B-ring enhanced the stability of anthocyanins, whereas hydroxyl group resulted in a reduction of their stability. Acylation decreased the stability of malvidin 3-O-glucoside. Pyruvic acid conjugation enhanced the structural stability of pyranoanthocyanins, whereas acetaldehyde attachment weakened their stability. A commercial malvidin 3-O-glucoside standard was used to investigate anthocyanin degradation products under simulated digestion process, and syringic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid were confirmed to be the degradation products via anthocyanin chalcone conversion path. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and p-coumaric acid in wine experienced a significant concentration decrease during digestion process. However, wine model solution revealed that phenolic acids remained stable under gastrointestinal conditions, except gallic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon wine; anthocyanins; degradation; stability; gastrointestinal pH and temperature Cabernet Sauvignon wine; anthocyanins; degradation; stability; gastrointestinal pH and temperature
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Yang, P.; Yuan, C.; Wang, H.; Han, F.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L.; Liu, Y. Stability of Anthocyanins and Their Degradation Products from Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine under Gastrointestinal pH and Temperature Conditions. Molecules 2018, 23, 354.

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