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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020345

Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

1
Faculty of Forest Resources and Environmental Management, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Xuan Mai, Hanoi 156200, Vietnam
2
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-829, Japan
3
Chemical Engineering, CSIR, CIMAP, Kukrail Picnic Spot Road, Lucknow 226015, India
4
Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
5
Department of Genetic Engineering, Agricultural Genetics Institute, Pham Van Dong Street, Hanoi 122300, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc), a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and Raphanus sativus (radish). Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves). By column chromatography and spectral data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS) analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1) was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves). This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli, a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM) was >5 fold greater than that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (IC50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM) on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli, respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli. This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: Castanea crenata; allelochemicals; 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid; inhibitory potential; E. crus-galli; monocot weeds; dicot weeds Castanea crenata; allelochemicals; 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid; inhibitory potential; E. crus-galli; monocot weeds; dicot weeds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tuyen, P.T.; Xuan, T.D.; Tu Anh, T.T.; Mai Van, T.; Ahmad, A.; Elzaawely, A.A.; Khanh, T.D. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. Molecules 2018, 23, 345.

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