Next Article in Journal
Recent Advances in Detecting Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmic Variations
Previous Article in Journal
Carbamates as Potential Prodrugs and a New Warhead for HDAC Inhibition
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020322

Oleanolic Acid-amino Acids Derivatives: Design, Synthesis, and Hepatoprotective Evaluation In Vitro and In Vivo

School of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 102488, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3747 KB, uploaded 6 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main extracellular matrix (ECM)-producing cells in the injured liver and the key mediators of liver fibrosis; they also promote the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the acidic extracellular microenvironment of HCC, HSCs are activated to promote the migration of HCC cells. It is worth attempting to alter the weak acidic microenvironment to promote activated HSC apoptosis to treat liver fibrosis and liver cancer. In the present study, a series of novel OA-amino acids analogues were designed and synthesized to introduce different amino acids in the 3-hydroxyl of OA using the ester condensation reaction to enhance hydrophilicity, alkalinity, and biological activity. We found that OA-lysine derivative (3g) could improve the hydrophilic of OA and induce HSCs apoptosis via inducing MMP depolarization and increasing intracellular Ca2+ levels. Additionally, 3g displayed a better hepatoprotective effect than OA (20 mg/kg, intragastric administration) against the acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. The results suggested that basic amino acids (lysine) could effectively enhance OA’s hydrophilicity, alkalinity, and hepatoprotective activity in vitro and in vivo, which might be likely associated with increasing bioavailability and altering an extracellular weak acidic microenvironment with further verification. Therefore, the OA-lysine derivative (3g) has the potential to be developed as an agent with hepatoprotective activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: OA-amino acids derivatives; hepatoprotective; hepatic stellate cells; apoptosisa; acidic extracellular microenvironment OA-amino acids derivatives; hepatoprotective; hepatic stellate cells; apoptosisa; acidic extracellular microenvironment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chu, F.; Zhang, W.; Guo, W.; Wang, Z.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Fang, K.; Yan, M.; Wang, P.; Lei, H. Oleanolic Acid-amino Acids Derivatives: Design, Synthesis, and Hepatoprotective Evaluation In Vitro and In Vivo. Molecules 2018, 23, 322.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top