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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020262

Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview

1
Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Cooperativa de Ensino Superior Politécnico e Universitário (CESPU), Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra PRD, Portugal
2
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), University of Porto, Edifício do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos s/n, 4050-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
3
Laboratory of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto , Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
4
Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (INEGI), Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 400, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chirality in Health and Environment: Recent developments)
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Abstract

Many substances of forensic interest are chiral and available either as racemates or pure enantiomers. Application of chiral analysis in biological samples can be useful for the determination of legal or illicit drugs consumption or interpretation of unexpected toxicological effects. Chiral substances can also be found in environmental samples and revealed to be useful for determination of community drug usage (sewage epidemiology), identification of illicit drug manufacturing locations, illegal discharge of sewage and in environmental risk assessment. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the application of chiral analysis in biological and environmental samples and their relevance in the forensic field. Most frequently analytical methods used to quantify the enantiomers are liquid and gas chromatography using both indirect, with enantiomerically pure derivatizing reagents, and direct methods recurring to chiral stationary phases. View Full-Text
Keywords: chiral drugs; forensic chemistry; enantiomers; pharmaceuticals; illicit drugs chiral drugs; forensic chemistry; enantiomers; pharmaceuticals; illicit drugs
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Ribeiro, C.; Santos, C.; Gonçalves, V.; Ramos, A.; Afonso, C.; Tiritan, M.E. Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview. Molecules 2018, 23, 262.

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