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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1554; doi:10.3390/molecules22091554

Comparison of Two Components of Propolis: Caffeic Acid (CA) and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231

1
Department of Pathology, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Ostrogórska 30, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
3
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Prof. K. Gibiński University Clinical Center, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Ceglana 35, Katowice 40-514, Poland
4
Department of Women Health, School of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Medyków 12, Katowice 40-752, Poland
5
Department and Institute of Microbiology and Virology, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
6
Department of Toxicology and Bioanalysis, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Jagiellońska 4, Sosnowiec 41-200, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract

Studies show that caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) are compounds with potent chemopreventive effects. Breast cancer is a common form of aggressive cancer among women worldwide. This study shows a comparison of CA and CAPE activity on triple-negative human caucasian breast adenocarcinoma line cells (MDA-MB-231). MDA-MB-231 cells were treated by CA and CAPE with doses of from 10 to 100 µM, for periods of 24 h and 48 h. Cytotoxicity MTT tests, apoptosis by Annexin V, and cell cycle with Dead Cell Assays were performed. Cytotoxic activity was greater for CAPE compared to CA (both incubation times, same dosage). IC50 values for CAPE were 27.84 µM (24 h) and 15.83 µM (48 h) and for CA > 10,000 µM (24 h) and > 1000 µM (48 h). Polyphenols induced apoptosis, while CAPE (dose dependently), induced a higher apoptotic effect. CAPE also induced cell cycle arrest in S phase (time and dose dependently), CA did it only for 50 and 100 µM. A dose dependent decline was seen for the G0/G1 phase (CAPE, 48 h), as well as elimination of phase G2/M by 100 µM of CAPE (only mild effect for CA). Comparing CA and CAPE activity on MDA-MB-231, CAPE clearly showed better activity for the same dosages and experiment times. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeic acid; caffeic acid phenethyl ester; CAPE; apotosis; cell cycle; proliferation; breast cancer; propolis caffeic acid; caffeic acid phenethyl ester; CAPE; apotosis; cell cycle; proliferation; breast cancer; propolis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kabała-Dzik, A.; Rzepecka-Stojko, A.; Kubina, R.; Jastrzębska-Stojko, Ż.; Stojko, R.; Wojtyczka, R.D.; Stojko, J. Comparison of Two Components of Propolis: Caffeic Acid (CA) and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Induce Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231. Molecules 2017, 22, 1554.

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