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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1479; doi:10.3390/molecules22091479

Masticadienonic and 3α-OH Masticadienoic Acids Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth in Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Vivo

1
Departamento de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán C.P., CDMX 04510, Mexico
2
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Sección XVI, Delegación Tlalpan C.P., CDMX 14000, Mexico
3
Departamento de Biología Celular y Tisular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán C.P., CDMX 04510, Mexico
4
Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental & Programa Institucional de Cáncer de Mama, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Deportivo, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán C.P., CDMX 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The triterpenes have been constituted as a group of interesting molecules as possible antitumor agents. Despite several of them not presenting a potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against cancer cells, in vivo in xenotransplant tumors studies, they show promising results. Based on the above considerations, we investigated the antitumor activity of both masticadienonic (MDA) and 3α-OH masticadienoic (3α-OH MDA) acids in a mouse prostate cancer xenograft model. Immunohistochemical assays were used to evaluate the decrease in the expression of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and the Ki-67 induced by MDA and 3α-OH MDA. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to demonstrate the fragmentation of DNA. Our results showed that the two triterpenes inhibited tumor growth, had anti-proliferative effect in vivo and induced cell death by apoptosis. Collectively, our data suggested that the antitumor mechanism of MDA and 3α-OH MDA involves several molecular targets related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: masticadienonic acid; 3α-OH masticadienonic acid; prostate cancer; xenografts; PCNA; Ki-67; apoptosis masticadienonic acid; 3α-OH masticadienonic acid; prostate cancer; xenografts; PCNA; Ki-67; apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Monroy, M.B.; Jacobo-Herrera, N.J.; Zentella-Dehesa, A.; Hernández-Téllez, B.; Martínez-Vázquez, M. Masticadienonic and 3α-OH Masticadienoic Acids Induce Apoptosis and Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth in Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Vivo. Molecules 2017, 22, 1479.

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