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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1477; doi:10.3390/molecules22091477

Ginger Phytochemicals Inhibit Cell Growth and Modulate Drug Resistance Factors in Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell

Department of Nursing, Tzu Hui Institute of Technology, Pingtung County 92641, Taiwan
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao District, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Anticancer Potential and Beyond)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1250 KB, uploaded 5 September 2017]   |  


Ginger has many bioactive compounds with pharmacological activities. However, few studies are known about these bioactive compounds activity in chemoresistant cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer properties of ginger phytochemicals in docetaxel-resistant human prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we isolated 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 4-shogaol, 6-shogaol, 10-shogaol, and 6-dehydrogingerdione from ginger. Further, the antiproliferation activity of these compounds was examined in docetaxel-resistant (PC3R) and sensitive (PC3) human prostate cancer cell lines. 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol at the concentration of 100 μM significantly inhibited the proliferation in PC3R but 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol displayed similar activity in PC3. The protein expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione-S-transferase (GSTπ) is higher in PC3R than in PC3. In summary, we isolated the bioactive compounds from ginger. Our results showed that 6-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 10-shogaol inhibit the proliferation of PC3R cells through the downregulation of MRP1 and GSTπ protein expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: ginger; drug resistance; prostate cancer ginger; drug resistance; prostate cancer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, C.-M.; Kao, C.-L.; Tseng, Y.-T.; Lo, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-Y. Ginger Phytochemicals Inhibit Cell Growth and Modulate Drug Resistance Factors in Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell. Molecules 2017, 22, 1477.

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