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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1453; doi:10.3390/molecules22091453

Changes in Tannin Composition of Syrah Grape Skins and Seeds during Fruit Ripening under Contrasting Water Conditions

1
Laboratory of Enology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
2
Laboratory of Viticulture, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin (ISVV), EA 4577, Œnologie, 210 Chemin de Leysotte, University Bordeaux, 33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
4
INRA, ISVV, USC 1366 Œnologie, 210 Chemin de Leysotte, 33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
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Abstract

Tannin accumulation and composition were determined in skins and seeds isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah grapes submitted to contrasting water regimes under semiarid climatic conditions. Three irrigation treatments were conducted, starting at berry set through harvest of two growing seasons, 2011 and 2012: irrigation at 100% of crop evapotranspiration ETc (FI), irrigation at 50% of ETc (DI) and non-irrigated (NI). Seed total tannins did not vary with maturity but those of skins underwent a progressive decline (especially in 2011), expressed both on a fresh weight and on a per berry basis. Skin total tannin concentration and content per berry were increased under NI and DI conditions, mainly in 2012. In contrast, seed total tannins (in 2012) and flavan-3-ol monomers and tannin oligomers (both years) were higher in the fully irrigated vines (FI). Skin polymer size increased during ripening, NI and DI skins showing higher mean degree of polymerization (mDP) compared to FI at harvest. NI was also associated with a lower percentage of galloylation (%G) in skin oligomeric fraction (in 2012) and a lower percentage of prodelphinidins in the skin polymeric fraction (both years) at harvest. The mDP and %G of seed extracts did not vary during ripening and were higher in NI but only in 2012. According to the results, management of vine water status was shown to influence tannin amount and composition of Syrah grapes grown under semiarid conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: irrigation; proanthocyanidins; flavan-3-ols; galloylation; polymerization; prodelphinidins; terminal and extension subunits irrigation; proanthocyanidins; flavan-3-ols; galloylation; polymerization; prodelphinidins; terminal and extension subunits
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kyraleou, M.; Kallithraka, S.; Theodorou, N.; Teissedre, P.-L.; Kotseridis, Y.; Koundouras, S. Changes in Tannin Composition of Syrah Grape Skins and Seeds during Fruit Ripening under Contrasting Water Conditions. Molecules 2017, 22, 1453.

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