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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1402; doi:10.3390/molecules22091402

Determination and Visualization of Peimine and Peiminine Content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbi Treated by Sulfur Fumigation Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Chemometrics

1
,
2,* and 2,*
1
Zhejiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Key Laboratory of Research and Development of Chinese Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310007, China
2
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract

Rapid, non-destructive, and accurate quantitative determination of the effective components in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is required by industries, planters, and regulators. In this study, near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was applied for determining the peimine and peiminine content in Fritillaria thunbergii bulbi under sulfur fumigation. Spectral data were extracted from the hyperspectral images. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted to determine the reference peimine and peiminine content. The successive projection algorithm (SPA), weighted regression coefficient (Bw), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), and random frog (RF) were used to select optimal wavelengths, while the partial least squares (PLS), least-square support vector machine (LS–SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) were used to build regression models. Regression models using the full spectra and optimal wavelengths obtained satisfactory results with the correlation coefficient of calibration (rc), cross-validation (rcv) and prediction (rp) of most models being over 0.8. Prediction maps of peimine and peiminine content in Fritillaria thunbergii bulbi were formed by applying regression models to the hyperspectral images. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging combined with regression models and optimal wavelength selection methods were effective in determining peimine and peiminine content in Fritillaria thunbergii bulbi, which will help in the development of an online detection system for real-world quality control of Fritillaria thunbergii bulbi under sulfur fumigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: near-infrared hyperspectral imaging; Fritillaria thunbergii bulbus; peimine; peiminine; prediction map near-infrared hyperspectral imaging; Fritillaria thunbergii bulbus; peimine; peiminine; prediction map
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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He, J.; He, Y.; Zhang, C. Determination and Visualization of Peimine and Peiminine Content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbi Treated by Sulfur Fumigation Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Chemometrics. Molecules 2017, 22, 1402.

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