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Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1162; doi:10.3390/molecules22071162

Specialized Metabolites of the Lichen Vulpicida pinastri Act as Photoprotective Agents

1
ISCR-UMR CNRS 6226, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université Rennes 1, 2 Av. du Pr. Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes CEDEX, France
2
IETR-UMR CNRS 6164, Institut d’Électronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes, Université Rennes 1, 263 Av. du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes CEDEX, France
3
French Lichenological Society, Station D’écologie Forestière, Route de la tour Dénecourt, 77300 Fontainebleau/Avon, France
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities)
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Abstract

The extreme resiliency of lichens to UV radiations makes them an interesting model to find new photoprotective agents acting as UV-blockers and antioxidant. In this research, using a new in vitro method designed to overcome the shortage of material associated to many studies dealing with natural products, we show that the three major compounds isolated from the lichen Vulpicida pinastri, vulpinic acid, pinastric acid and usnic acid, were UV blocker agents. Antioxidant assays evidenced superoxide anion scavenging activity. Combination of the most promising compounds against UVB and UVB radiations, usnic acid, vulpinic acid and pinastric acid, increased the photoprotective activity. At the same time, they were found not cytotoxic on keratinocyte cell lines and photostable in the UVA and UVB ranges. Thus, lichens represent an attractive source to find good candidate ingredients as photoprotective agents. Additionally, the uncommon scalemic usnic acid mixture in this Vulpicida species was proven through electronic circular dichroism calculation. View Full-Text
Keywords: lichen; photoprotection; antioxidant; phototoxicity; pulvinic acid; synergy lichen; photoprotection; antioxidant; phototoxicity; pulvinic acid; synergy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Legouin, B.; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, F.; Ferron, S.; Rouaud, I.; Le Pogam, P.; Cornevin, L.; Bertrand, M.; Boustie, J. Specialized Metabolites of the Lichen Vulpicida pinastri Act as Photoprotective Agents. Molecules 2017, 22, 1162.

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