Next Article in Journal
Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation
Previous Article in Journal
Oligonucleotides and ND-FISH Displaying Different Arrangements of Tandem Repeats and Identification of Dasypyrum villosum Chromosomes in Wheat Backgrounds
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 976; doi:10.3390/molecules22060976

Inhibitory Effects of Diclofenac on Steroid Glucuronidation In Vivo Do Not Affect Hair-Based Doping Tests for Stanozolol

1
Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Semmelweis University, Tűzoltó u. 58, Budapest 1094, Hungary
2
School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, London KT1 2EE, UK
3
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain 009713, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1067 KB, uploaded 14 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

In vitro studies show that diclofenac inhibits enzymatic steroid glucuronidation. This study was designed to investigate the influence of diclofenac on the excretion of stanozolol and 3′-hydroxystanozolol via analyses in hair, blood and urine in vivo in a rat study. Brown Norway rats were administered with stanozolol (weeks 1–3) and diclofenac (weeks 1–6). Weekly assessment of steroid levels in hair was complemented with spot urine and serum tests. Levels of both stanozolol and 3′-hydroxystanozolol steadily increased in hair during stanozolol treatment and decreased post-treatment, but remained readily detectable for 6 weeks. In contrast, compared to control rats, diclofenac significantly reduced urinary excretion of 3′-hydroxystanozolol which was undetectable in most samples. This is the first report of diclofenac altering steroid metabolism in vivo, detrimentally affecting detection in urine, but not in hair, which holds considerable advantages over urinalysis for anti-doping tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: steroid; metabolism; anti-inflammatory drug; inhibition steroid; metabolism; anti-inflammatory drug; inhibition
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zachár, G.; Deshmukh, N.I.; Petróczi, A.; Székely, A.D.; Shah, I.; Barker, J.; Naughton, D.P. Inhibitory Effects of Diclofenac on Steroid Glucuronidation In Vivo Do Not Affect Hair-Based Doping Tests for Stanozolol. Molecules 2017, 22, 976.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top