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Molecules 2017, 22(6), 876; doi:10.3390/molecules22060876

Identification of Anthocyanin Composition and Functional Analysis of an Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits

1
State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Biology of Vegetable Diseases and Insect Pests, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, Shandong, China
2
Shaoxing Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shaoxing 312000, Zhejiang, China
3
Anhui Biothun Biotechnology Company, Hefei 230088, Anhui, China
4
Institute of Plant Protection, Yantai Academy of Agricultural Science, Yantai 265500, Shandong, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas J. Schmidt
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Solanum nigrum fruits have been conventionally used in beverages due to their nutritional substances such as minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, sugars, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The characterization of components and regulatory mechanism of anthocyanins in S. nigrum fruits have rarely been reported. In this study, we determined that the peel and flesh of S. nigrum fruits shared similar HPLC profiles but different contents and total antioxidant activities for anthocyanins. After an efficient purification method, mainly including extraction with pH 1.0 distilled water and then desorption with pH 1.0 95% ethanol after a DM-130 resin adsorption step to obtain more pure anthocyanin extracts, the purity of anthocyanins extracted from S. nigrum fruits reached 56.1%. Moreover, eight anthocyanins from S. nigrum fruit were identified with HPLC-MS/MS for the first time. A typical R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SnMYB, was also cloned for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR from S. nigrum. Moreover, the contents of anthocyanins were shown to correlate well (r = 0.93) with the expression levels of SnMYB gene during the fruit’s developmental stages. Most significantly, SnMYB gene successfully produced high anthocyanin content (1.03 mg/g) when SnMYB gene was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves. Taken together, S. nigrum fruits are a promising resource for anthocyanin extraction, and SnMYB gene is an activator that positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in S. nigrum. View Full-Text
Keywords: Solanum nigrum; anthocyanin; HPLC-MS/MS; antioxidant capacity; SnMYB transcription factor Solanum nigrum; anthocyanin; HPLC-MS/MS; antioxidant capacity; SnMYB transcription factor
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Wang, S.; Chu, Z.; Ren, M.; Jia, R.; Zhao, C.; Fei, D.; Su, H.; Fan, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ding, X. Identification of Anthocyanin Composition and Functional Analysis of an Anthocyanin Activator in Solanum nigrum Fruits. Molecules 2017, 22, 876.

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