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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 774; doi:10.3390/molecules22050774

Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes

1
Laboratório de Produtos Naturais e Espectrometria de Massas (LaPNEM), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande 79070-900, MS, Brazil
2
Núcleo de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos (NPPNS), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-020, SP, Brazil
3
Institute of Botany, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstraße 30, Stuttgart 70593, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 7 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract

Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: MALDI; LDI; trichome; polymethoxylated flavonoids; Helianthus; mass spectrometry; imaging; sesquiterpene lactones; sesquiterpenes MALDI; LDI; trichome; polymethoxylated flavonoids; Helianthus; mass spectrometry; imaging; sesquiterpene lactones; sesquiterpenes
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Brentan Silva, D.; Aschenbrenner, A.-K.; Lopes, N.P.; Spring, O. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes. Molecules 2017, 22, 774.

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