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Molecules 2017, 22(4), 564; doi:10.3390/molecules22040564

Self-Organized TiO2–MnO2 Nanotube Arrays for Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Toluene

1
Facultad de Ingeniería Química y Agroindustria, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, P.O. Box 17-01-2759, Quito 170525, Ecuador
2
Centro de Investigación y Control Ambiental “CICAM”, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería Civil y Ambiental, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, P.O. Box 17-01-2759, Quito 170525, Ecuador
3
Department of Environmental Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland
4
Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pierre Pichat
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-involving Purification of Water and Air)
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Abstract

Vertically oriented, self-organized TiO2–MnO2 nanotube arrays were successfully obtained by one-step anodic oxidation of Ti–Mn alloys in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the applied potential (30–50 V), manganese content in the alloy (5–15 wt. %) and water content in the electrolyte (2–10 vol. %) on the morphology and photocatalytic properties was investigated for the first time. The photoactivity was assessed in the toluene removal reaction under visible light, using low-powered LEDs as an irradiation source (λmax = 465 nm). Morphology analysis showed that samples consisted of auto-aligned nanotubes over the surface of the alloy, their dimensions were: diameter = 76–118 nm, length = 1.0–3.4 μm and wall thickness = 8–11 nm. It was found that the increase in the applied potential led to increase the dimensions while the increase in the content of manganese in the alloy brought to shorter nanotubes. Notably, all samples were photoactive under the influence of visible light and the highest degradation achieved after 60 min of irradiation was 43%. The excitation mechanism of TiO2–MnO2 NTs under visible light was presented, pointing out the importance of MnO2 species for the generation of e and h+. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2–MnO2 nanotubes; visible light induced photocatalysis; alloys; toluene degradation; anodization TiO2–MnO2 nanotubes; visible light induced photocatalysis; alloys; toluene degradation; anodization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nevárez-Martínez, M.C.; Kobylański, M.P.; Mazierski, P.; Wółkiewicz, J.; Trykowski, G.; Malankowska, A.; Kozak, M.; Espinoza-Montero, P.J.; Zaleska-Medynska, A. Self-Organized TiO2–MnO2 Nanotube Arrays for Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of Toluene. Molecules 2017, 22, 564.

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