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Molecules 2017, 22(4), 560; doi:10.3390/molecules22040560

Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001, China
School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu Yang
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sub- and Supercritical Fluids and Green Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3544 KB, uploaded 31 March 2017]   |  


As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed. View Full-Text
Keywords: subcritical butane; pesticide residue; bifenthrin; black tea subcritical butane; pesticide residue; bifenthrin; black tea

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Zhang, Y.; Gu, L.; Wang, F.; Kong, L.; Qin, G. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea. Molecules 2017, 22, 560.

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