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Molecules 2017, 22(3), 372; doi:10.3390/molecules22030372

Antioxidant Activity of the Lignins Derived from Fluidized-Bed Fast Pyrolysis

1
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada
2
Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, Natural Resources Canada, Great Lake Forestry Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, ON P6A 2E5, Canada
3
Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR), University of Western Ontario, 22312, Wonderland Road N, Ilderton, ON N0M 2A0, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract

A challenge in recent years has been the rational use of forest and agriculture residues for the production of bio-fuel, biochemical, and other bioproducts. In this study, potentially useful compounds from pyrolytic lignins were identified by HPLC-MS/MS and untargeted metabolomics. The metabolites identified were 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-propanol, benzyl benzoate, fisetinidol, phenyllactic acid, 2-phenylpropionic acid, 6,3′-dimethoxyflavone, and vanillin. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and total phenolics content (TPC) per gram of pyrolytic lignin ranged from 14 to 503 mg ascorbic acid equivalents, 35 to 277 mg trolox equivalents, and 0.42 to 50 mg gallic acid equivalents, respectively. A very significant correlation was observed between the DPPH and TPC (r = 0.8663, p ≤ 0.0001), TEAC and TPC (r = 0.8044, p ≤ 0.0001), and DPPH and TEAC (r = 0.8851, p ≤ 0.0001). The polyphenolic compounds in the pyrolytic lignins which are responsible for radical scavenging activity and antioxidant properties can be readily profiled with HPLC-MS/MS combined with untargeted metabolomics. The results also suggest that DPPH, TEAC, and TPC assays are suitable methods for the measurement of antioxidant activity in a variety of pyrolytic lignins. These data show that the pyrolytic lignins can be considered as promising sources of natural antioxidants and value-added chemicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; value-added chemicals; HPLC-MS/MS; metabolomics; pyrolytic lignins; biomass; bio-oils; phenolics; free-radical scavenging activity; bioactive compounds antioxidants; value-added chemicals; HPLC-MS/MS; metabolomics; pyrolytic lignins; biomass; bio-oils; phenolics; free-radical scavenging activity; bioactive compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qazi, S.S.; Li, D.; Briens, C.; Berruti, F.; Abou-Zaid, M.M. Antioxidant Activity of the Lignins Derived from Fluidized-Bed Fast Pyrolysis. Molecules 2017, 22, 372.

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