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Molecules 2017, 22(3), 335; doi:10.3390/molecules22030335

Essential Oil of Aristolochia trilobata: Synthesis, Routes of Exposure, Acute Toxicity, Binary Mixtures and Behavioral Effects on Leaf-Cutting Ants

1
Departamento de Engenharia Agronômica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil
2
Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Brazil
3
Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão 491000-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Olga Tzakou
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Abstract

Plants of the genus Aristolochia have been frequently reported as important medicinal plants. Despite their high bioactive potential, to date, there are no reports of their effects on leaf-cutting ants. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Aristolochia trilobata and its major components on Atta sexdens and Acromyrmex balzani, two species of leaf-cutting ants. The bioassays were performed regarding routes of exposure, acute toxicity, binary mixtures of the major components and behavioral effects. Twenty-five components were identified in the essential oil of A. trilobata using a gas chromatographic system equipped with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. The components found in higher proportions were sulcatyl acetate, limonene, p-cymene and linalool. The essential oil of A. trilobata and its individual major components were efficient against A. balzani and A. sexdens workers when applied by fumigation. These components showed fast and efficient insecticidal activity on ants. The components acted synergistically and additively on A. balzani and A. sexdens, respectively, and caused a strong repellency/irritability in the ants. Thus, our results demonstrate the great potential of the essential oil of A. trilobata and its major components for the development of new insecticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aristolochiaceae; insecticidal plant; monoterpenes; Formicidae; fumigation; synergism; additive effect; repellency Aristolochiaceae; insecticidal plant; monoterpenes; Formicidae; fumigation; synergism; additive effect; repellency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Oliveira, B.M.S.; Melo, C.R.; Alves, P.B.; Santos, A.A.; Santos, A.C.C.; Santana, A.S.; Araújo, A.P.A.; Nascimento, P.E.S.; Blank, A.F.; Bacci, L. Essential Oil of Aristolochia trilobata: Synthesis, Routes of Exposure, Acute Toxicity, Binary Mixtures and Behavioral Effects on Leaf-Cutting Ants. Molecules 2017, 22, 335.

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