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Molecules 2017, 22(2), 222; doi:10.3390/molecules22020222

The Essential Oil of Monarda didyma L. (Lamiaceae) Exerts Phytotoxic Activity in Vitro against Various Weed Seed

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo, sez. Biologia Vegetale, via Bramante 28 61029 Urbino (PU), Italy
2
Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Chieti-Pescara G. d’Annunzio, via dei Vestini 31 66100 Chieti (CH), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 January 2017 / Published: 2 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Abstract

The chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of Monarda didyma L. cultivated in central Italy was analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The major compounds of the oil were thymol (59.3%), p-cymene (10.3%), terpinolene (9.2%), δ-3-carene (4.4%), myrcene (3.7%), and camphene (3.4%). The essential oil was tested in vitro for its anti-germination activity against Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Avena fatua L., Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L. seeds, demonstrating good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. The exposure of the employed weed seeds to M. didyma essential oil and thymol solution (59.3%) increased the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), markers of oxidative stress, in emerging 5-day-old rootlets. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; anti-germination; Monarda didyma L.; hydrogen peroxide; malondialdehyde; phytotoxic activity essential oil; anti-germination; Monarda didyma L.; hydrogen peroxide; malondialdehyde; phytotoxic activity
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Ricci, D.; Epifano, F.; Fraternale, D. The Essential Oil of Monarda didyma L. (Lamiaceae) Exerts Phytotoxic Activity in Vitro against Various Weed Seed. Molecules 2017, 22, 222.

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