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Molecules 2017, 22(2), 218; doi:10.3390/molecules22020218

Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes

1
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
2
School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland Innovation and Research Precinct, Central Queensland University, Bruce Highway, North Rockhampton, QLD 4701, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on MFA results correctly classified 100% of the samples into GI in 2015 and 2016. Classification according to grade was achieved based on the results for elements such as Cu, Na, Fe, volatiles including C6 and aryl alcohols, hydrolytically-released volatiles such as (Z)-linalool oxide and vitispirane, pH, TSS, alanine and proline. Correct classification through DA according to grade was 100% for both vintages. Significant correlations were observed between climate, GI, grade, and berry composition. Climate influenced the synthesis of free and bound volatiles as well as amino acids, sugars, and acids, as a result of higher temperatures and precipitation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chardonnay; geographical indication; volatile composition; elements; multiple factor analysis Chardonnay; geographical indication; volatile composition; elements; multiple factor analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gambetta, J.M.; Cozzolino, D.; Bastian, S.E.; Jeffery, D.W. Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes. Molecules 2017, 22, 218.

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