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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2008; doi:10.3390/molecules22112008

Biodegradable Chitosan Decreases the Immune Response to Trichinella spiralis in Mice

1
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of chitosan units released during natural degradation of the polymer to activate the immune system against T. spiralis infection. High molecular weight chitosan was injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Flow cytometry and cytokine concentration, measured by ELISA, were used to characterize peritoneal cell populations during T. spiralis infection. The strong chemo-attractive properties of chitosan caused considerable infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of CD11b+ cells, with reduced expression of MHC class II, CD80, CD86, Dectin-1 or CD23 receptors in comparison to T. spiralis-infected mice. After prolonged chitosan biodegradation, cell populations expressing IL-4R, MR and Dectin-1 receptors were found to coexist with elevated IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β and IgA production. IgA cross-reacted with T. spiralis antigen and chitosan. It was found that chitosan treatment attracted immune cells with low activity, which resulted in the number of nematodes increasing. The glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were recognized by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectin and therefore any biodegradable chitosan units may actively downregulate the immune response to the parasite. The findings are relevant for both people and animals treated with chitosan preparations. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; Trichinella spiralis; myeloid cells; immunosuppression; peritoneal IgA chitosan; Trichinella spiralis; myeloid cells; immunosuppression; peritoneal IgA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brodaczewska, K.; Wolaniuk, N.; Lewandowska, K.; Donskow-Łysoniewska, K.; Doligalska, M. Biodegradable Chitosan Decreases the Immune Response to Trichinella spiralis in Mice. Molecules 2017, 22, 2008.

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