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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 2006; doi:10.3390/molecules22112006

Identification of Major Flavone C-Glycosides and Their Optimized Extraction from Cymbidium kanran Using Deep Eutectic Solvents

1
School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
2
Amorepacific Research and Development Center, Giheung-gu, Yongin 17074, Gyeonggi-do, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract

Cymbidium kanran, an orchid exclusively distributed in Northeast Asia, has been highly valued as a decorative plant and traditional herbal medicine. Here, C. kanran extracts were prepared in 70% aqueous methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and subjected to liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis, which were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively. It was found that the extracts were rich in flavone C-glycosides including vicenin-2, vicenin-3, schaftoside, vitexin, and isovitexin. Ten deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were synthesized by combining choline chloride (hydrogen bond acceptor) with various polyols and diols (hydrogen bond donors) and were tested as a medium for the efficient production of extracts enriched with potentially bioactive flavone C-glycosides from C. kanran. A DES named ChCl:DPG, composed of choline chloride and dipropylene glycol at a 1:4 molar ratio, exhibited the best extraction yields. Then, the effects of extraction conditions on the extraction efficiency were investigated by response surface methodology. Lower water content in the extraction solvent and longer extraction time during UAE were desirable for higher extraction yields. Under the statistically optimized conditions, in which 100 mg of C. kanran powder were extracted in 0.53 mL of a mixture of ChCl:DPG and water (74:26, w/w) for 86 min, a total of 3.441 mg g−1 flavone C-glycosides including 1.933 mg g−1 vicenin-2 was obtained. This total yield was 196%, 131%, and 71% more than those obtained using 100% methanol, water, and 70% methanol, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: Orchidaceae; Cymbidium; flavone C-glycoside profile; vicenin-2; deep eutectic solvent; response surface methodology Orchidaceae; Cymbidium; flavone C-glycoside profile; vicenin-2; deep eutectic solvent; response surface methodology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jeong, K.M.; Yang, M.; Jin, Y.; Kim, E.M.; Ko, J.; Lee, J. Identification of Major Flavone C-Glycosides and Their Optimized Extraction from Cymbidium kanran Using Deep Eutectic Solvents. Molecules 2017, 22, 2006.

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