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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1964; doi:10.3390/molecules22111964

Phospholipids of Animal and Marine Origin: Structure, Function, and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
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Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Structure and Function)
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Abstract

In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section 1 presents an overview of the relationship between structures and biological activities (pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory) of several phospholipids with respect to inflammation. Section 2 and Section 3 are dedicated to the structures, functions, compositions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option because of its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. Extensive research has been published in relation to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammation, however this research has recently come under scrutiny and has proved to be unreliable and controversial in terms of the therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFA, which are generally in the form of triglycerides and esters. Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition
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Lordan, R.; Tsoupras, A.; Zabetakis, I. Phospholipids of Animal and Marine Origin: Structure, Function, and Anti-Inflammatory Properties. Molecules 2017, 22, 1964.

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