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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1956; doi:10.3390/molecules22111956

Two Sulfur Glycoside Compounds Isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd Protect NRK52e Cells against Hypertonic-Induced Adhesion and Inflammation by Suppressing the MAPK Signaling Pathway and RAAS

1
College of Pharmacy, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center for Respiratory Disease Diagnosis and Treatment & Chinese Medicine Development of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450046, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Lepidium apetalum Willd has been used to reduce edema and promote urination. Cis-desulfoglucotropaeolin (cis-DG) and trans-desulfoglucotropaeolin (trans-DG) were isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd, and caused a significant increase in cell viability in a hypertonic model in NRK52e cells. In the hypertonic model, cis-DG and trans-DG significantly promoted the cell viability of NRK52e cells and inhibited the elevation of Na+ in the supernatant, inhibited the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system, significantly reduced the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone (ALD), and lowered aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na+–K+ ATP content in renal medulla. After treatment with cis-DG and trans-DG, expression of calcineurin (CAN) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) was decreased in renal tissue and Ca2+ influx was inhibited, thereby reducing the secretion of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), reversing the increase in adhesion and inflammatory factor E-selectin and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) induced by high NaCl, while reducing oxidative stress status and decreasing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) expression also contributed to these improvements. The cis-DG and trans-DG reduced the expression of p-p44/42 MAPK, p-JNK and p-p38, inhibited the phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathway in NRN52e cells induced by high salt, decreased the overexpression of p-p38 and p-HSP27, and inhibited the overactivation of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that the p38-MAPK pathway may play a vital role in the hypertonic-induced adhesion and inflammatory response. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the mechanism of cis-DG and trans-DG may mainly be through inhibiting the p38-MAPK signaling pathway, inhibiting the excessive activation of the RAAS system, and thereby reducing adhesion and inflammatory factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfur glycoside; hypertonic model; MAPK signaling pathway; RAAS; adhesion; inflammatory sulfur glycoside; hypertonic model; MAPK signaling pathway; RAAS; adhesion; inflammatory
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Yuan, P.; Zheng, X.; Li, M.; Ke, Y.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, X.; Feng, W. Two Sulfur Glycoside Compounds Isolated from Lepidium apetalum Willd Protect NRK52e Cells against Hypertonic-Induced Adhesion and Inflammation by Suppressing the MAPK Signaling Pathway and RAAS. Molecules 2017, 22, 1956.

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