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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1928; doi:10.3390/molecules22111928

Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

1
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef 62511, Egypt
2
Department of Pathology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University, Hospital and Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Jeonju 54896, Korea
3
Department of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef 62511, Egypt
4
Faculty of Science, Al Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21453, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef 62511, Egypt
6
Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Larkin University, Miami, FL 33169, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Abstract

Central nervous system cytotoxicity is linked to neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate whether monosodium glutamate (MSG) neurotoxicity can be reversed by natural products, such as ginger or propolis, in male rats. Four different groups of Wistar rats were utilized in the study. Group A served as a normal control, whereas group B was orally administered with MSG (100 mg/kg body weight, via oral gavage). Two additional groups, C and D, were given MSG as group B along with oral dose (500 mg/kg body weight) of either ginger or propolis (600 mg/kg body weight) once a day for two months. At the end, the rats were sacrificed, and the brain tissue was excised and levels of neurotransmitters, ß-amyloid, and DNA oxidative marker 8-OHdG were estimated in the brain homogenates. Further, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections were used for histopathological evaluation. The results showed that MSG increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, neurotransmitters, and 8-OHdG as well as registered an accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides compared to normal control rats. Moreover, significant depletions of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as histopathological alterations in the brain tissue of MSG-treated rats were noticed in comparison with the normal control. In contrast, treatment with ginger greatly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MSG through suppression of 8-OHdG and β-amyloid accumulation as well as alteration of neurotransmitter levels. Further improvements were also noticed based on histological alterations and reduction of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue. A modest inhibition of the neurodegenerative markers was observed by propolis. The study clearly indicates a neuroprotective effect of ginger and propolis against MSG-induced neurodegenerative disorders and these beneficial effects could be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in these natural products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Monosodium glutamate; ginger; propolis; oxidative stress; β-amyloid; neurotoxicity Monosodium glutamate; ginger; propolis; oxidative stress; β-amyloid; neurotoxicity
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Hussein, U.K.; Hassan, N.E.-H.; Elhalwagy, M.E.; Zaki, A.R.; Abubakr, H.O.; Nagulapalli Venkata, K.C.; Jang, K.Y.; Bishayee, A. Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats. Molecules 2017, 22, 1928.

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