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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1883; doi:10.3390/molecules22111883

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production

1
Department of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 632 Lothário Meissner Avenue, Curitiba 80210-170, Brazil
2
Department of Pharmacy, Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, 1632 Silva Jardim Avenue, Curitiba 80250-060, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The ability of plant extracts and preparations to reduce inflammation has been proven by different means in experimental models. Since inflammation enhances the release of specific mediators, inhibition of their production can be used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of plants widely used in folk medicine for this purpose. The study was performed for leaves and flowers of Malva sylvestris, and leaves of Sida cordifolia and Pelargonium graveolens. These are three plant species known in Brazil as Malva. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and residual) was evaluated by quantitation of prostaglandins (PG) PGE2, PGD2, PGF, and thromboxane B2 (the stable nonenzymatic product of TXA2) concentration in the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of anti-inflammatory mediator release was observed for plants mainly in the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and residual fraction. The results suggest superior activity of S. cordifolia, leading to significantly lower values of all mediators after treatment with its residual fraction, even at the lower concentration tested (10 μg/mL). M. sylvestris and P. graveolens showed similar results, such as the reduction of all mediators after treatment, with leaf crude extracts (50 μg/mL). These results suggest that the three species known as Malva have anti-inflammatory properties, S. cordifolia being the most potent. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity; Malva sylvestris; Sida cordifolia; Pelargonium graveolens; RAW 264.7 anti-inflammatory activity; Malva sylvestris; Sida cordifolia; Pelargonium graveolens; RAW 264.7
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, C.A.F.; Campos, M.L.; Irioda, A.C.; Stremel, D.P.; Trindade, A.C.L.B.; Pontarolo, R. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Malva sylvestris, Sida cordifolia, and Pelargonium graveolens Is Related to Inhibition of Prostanoid Production. Molecules 2017, 22, 1883.

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