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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1880;

Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils—Composition and Biological Activity

Institute of General Food Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego St. 4/10, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Kilińskiego St. 1, 15-089 Białystok, Poland
Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Medical University of Lodz, Żeligowskiego St. 7/9, 90-752 Łódź, Poland
Department of Allergology and Respiratory Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera Sq.1, 90-549 Łódź, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and β-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 μL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0–0.075 μL/mL) and (0–1.0 μL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h. View Full-Text
Keywords: Abies concolor; fir; essential oil; seed; cone; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity Abies concolor; fir; essential oil; seed; cone; antimicrobial activity; cytotoxicity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wajs-Bonikowska, A.; Szoka, Ł.; Karna, E.; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, A.; Sienkiewicz, M. Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils—Composition and Biological Activity. Molecules 2017, 22, 1880.

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