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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1879; doi:10.3390/molecules22111879

Influence of Amlodipine Enantiomers on Human Microsomal Cytochromes P450: Stereoselective Time-Dependent Inhibition of CYP3A Enzyme Activity

1
Department of Pharmacology and Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University at Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles, Akademika Heyrovskeho 1203, 500 05 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract

Amlodipine (AML) is available as a racemate, i.e., a mixture of R- and S-enantiomers. Its inhibitory potency towards nine cytochromes P450 (CYP) was studied to evaluate the drug–drug interactions between the enantiomers. Enzyme inhibition was evaluated using specific CYP substrates in human liver microsomes. With CYP3A, both enantiomers exhibited reversible and time-dependent inhibition. S-AML was a stronger reversible inhibitor of midazolam hydroxylation: the Ki values of S- and R-AML were 8.95 µM, 14.85 µM, respectively. Computational docking confirmed that the enantiomers interact differently with CYP3A: the binding free energy of S-AML in the active site was greater than that for R-AML (−7.6- vs. −6.7 kcal/mol). Conversely, R-AML exhibited more potent time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A activity (KI 8.22 µM, Kinact 0.065 min−1) than S-AML (KI 14.06 µM, Kinact 0.041 min−1). R-AML was also a significantly more potent inhibitor of CYP2C9 (Ki 12.11 µM/S-AML 21.45 µM) and CYP2C19 (Ki 5.97 µM/S-AML 7.22 μM. In conclusion, results indicate that clinical use of S-AML has an advantage not only because of greater pharmacological effect, but also because of fewer side effects and drug–drug interactions with cytochrome P450 substrates due to absence of R-AML. View Full-Text
Keywords: amlodipine; enantiomers; cytochrome P450; drug–drug interactions; enzyme inhibition; stereoselectivity amlodipine; enantiomers; cytochrome P450; drug–drug interactions; enzyme inhibition; stereoselectivity
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Krasulova, K.; Holas, O.; Anzenbacher, P. Influence of Amlodipine Enantiomers on Human Microsomal Cytochromes P450: Stereoselective Time-Dependent Inhibition of CYP3A Enzyme Activity. Molecules 2017, 22, 1879.

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