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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1733; doi:10.3390/molecules22111733

Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy

1
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Perdana University-Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Perdana University, MAEPS Building, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
6
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
7
Health Sciences Division, Abu Dhabi Women’s College, Higher Colleges of Technology, 41012 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2562 KB, uploaded 4 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive interaction; antibiotic resistance; cinnamon bark essential oil; combinatory treatment; membrane disruption additive interaction; antibiotic resistance; cinnamon bark essential oil; combinatory treatment; membrane disruption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, S.-K.; Yusoff, K.; Mai, C.-W.; Lim, W.-M.; Yap, W.-S.; Lim, S.-H.E.; Lai, K.-S. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy. Molecules 2017, 22, 1733.

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