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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1697; doi:10.3390/molecules22101697

Nano-Formulation of Ethambutol with Multifunctional Graphene Oxide and Magnetic Nanoparticles Retains Its Anti-Tubercular Activity with Prospects of Improving Chemotherapeutic Efficacy

1
Mycobacteria Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology (ISMB), Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK
2
Material Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory for Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Biosciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Neurology (Ward No. 18), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center/Jinnah Sindh Medical, University Karachi, Karachi 75510, Pakistan
5
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Drug Discovery Approaches against Infectious Diseases)
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Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a dreadful bacterial disease, infecting millions of human and cattle every year worldwide. More than 50 years after its discovery, ethambutol continues to be an effective part of the World Health Organization’s recommended frontline chemotherapy against TB. However, the lengthy treatment regimens consisting of a cocktail of antibiotics affect patient compliance. There is an urgent need to improve the current therapy so as to reduce treatment duration and dosing frequency. In this study, we have designed a novel anti-TB multifunctional formulation by fabricating graphene oxide with iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles serving as a nano-carrier on to which ethambutol was successfully loaded. The designed nanoformulation was characterised using various analytical techniques. The release of ethambutol from anti-TB multifunctional nanoparticles formulation was found to be sustained over a significantly longer period of time in phosphate buffer saline solution at two physiological pH (7.4 and 4.8). Furthermore, the nano-formulation showed potent anti-tubercular activity while remaining non-toxic to the eukaryotic cells tested. The results of this in vitro evaluation of the newly designed nano-formulation endorse its further development in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: Multifunctional nanocarrier; nanoformulation; ambutol; graphene oxide; iron oxide magnetite; tuberculosis Multifunctional nanocarrier; nanoformulation; ambutol; graphene oxide; iron oxide magnetite; tuberculosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saifullah, B.; Maitra, A.; Chrzastek, A.; Naeemullah, B.; Fakurazi, S.; Bhakta, S.; Hussein, M.Z. Nano-Formulation of Ethambutol with Multifunctional Graphene Oxide and Magnetic Nanoparticles Retains Its Anti-Tubercular Activity with Prospects of Improving Chemotherapeutic Efficacy. Molecules 2017, 22, 1697.

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