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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1664; doi:10.3390/molecules22101664

Associations of Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

1
Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
3
Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Gyeonggi-do 17546, Korea
4
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Research Institute & Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea
5
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds for Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

Antioxidants are suggested to decrease risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by preventing progressive impairment of pancreatic β-cell and endothelial function. This study was aimed to investigate the association between dietary antioxidants and risk of T2D in Korean adults based on a national representative data. A total of 24,377 adults (19–74 years) who completed one-day 24 h dietary recall and health examination were included. Dietary antioxidant intakes including α-carotene (p < 0.0001), lycopene (p = 0.0107), flavan-3-ols (p < 0.0001), and proanthocyanidins (p = 0.0075) were significantly higher in non-diabetic subjects than in diabetic subjects. After adjusting for confounding variables, the highest quartile group of α-carotene intake was associated with a 48% reduced risk of T2D in men (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34–0.80, p for trend = 0.0037) and a 39% reduced risk in women (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38–0.996, p for trend = 0.0377) compared to the lowest quartile group. Men in the highest quartile of β-carotene intake showed lower risk of T2D (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42–0.97), but no significant decreasing trend. However, the intakes of total carotenoids and other antioxidants showed no significant association with the risk of T2D. These findings suggest that a further comprehensive approach which considers overall dietary pattern is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; carotene; type 2 diabetes; Korean antioxidants; carotene; type 2 diabetes; Korean
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Quansah, D.Y.; Ha, K.; Jun, S.; Kim, S.-A.; Shin, S.; Wie, G.-A.; Joung, H. Associations of Dietary Antioxidants and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Molecules 2017, 22, 1664.

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