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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 63; doi:10.3390/molecules22010063

Hydrogen Sulfide in the Adipose Tissue—Physiology, Pathology and a Target for Pharmacotherapy

1
Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Neurology, Medical University, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Noriyuki Nagahara, Maria Wrobel and Derek J. McPhee
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 29 December 2016 / Published: 31 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [246 KB, uploaded 31 December 2016]

Abstract

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is synthesized in the adipose tissue mainly by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Several studies have demonstrated that H2S is involved in adipogenesis, that is the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, most likely by inhibiting phosphodiesterases and increasing cyclic AMP concentration. The effect of H2S on adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake is controversial. Some studies suggest that H2S inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake and that excess of H2S contributes to adipose tissue insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. In contrast, other studies have demonstrated that H2S stimulates glucose uptake and its deficiency contributes to insulin resistance. Similarly, the effect of H2S on adipose tissue lipolysis is controversial. H2S produced by perivascular adipose tissue decreases vascular tone by activating ATP-sensitive and/or voltage-gated potassium channels in smooth muscle cells. Experimental obesity induced by high calorie diet has a time dependent effect on H2S in perivascular adipose tissue; short and long-term obesity increase and decrease H2S production, respectively. Hyperglycemia has been consistently demonstrated to suppress CSE-H2S pathway in various adipose tissue depots. Finally, H2S deficiency may contribute to adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity/metabolic syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen sulfide; adipose tissue; lipolysis; insulin resistance; adipogenesis; vascular tone; obesity; metabolic syndrome hydrogen sulfide; adipose tissue; lipolysis; insulin resistance; adipogenesis; vascular tone; obesity; metabolic syndrome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bełtowski, J.; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, A. Hydrogen Sulfide in the Adipose Tissue—Physiology, Pathology and a Target for Pharmacotherapy. Molecules 2017, 22, 63.

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