Next Article in Journal
Dysregulation of Cell Death and Its Epigenetic Mechanisms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Next Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on the Activity of Selected Non-Antibiotic Medicinal Products against Gram-Negative Bacteria
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-HBV Activities of Three Compounds Extracted and Purified from Herpetospermum Seeds
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antibiofilm Activity of Plant Polyphenols
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 29; doi:10.3390/molecules22010029

Antibiotic Resistant Superbugs: Assessment of the Interrelationship of Occurrence in Clinical Settings and Environmental Niches

1
SARChI, Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa
2
Department of Microbiology, University of Uyo, 520211 Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
3
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. Rutledge
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [682 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The increasing threat to global health posed by antibiotic resistance remains of serious concern. Human health remains at higher risk due to several reported therapeutic failures to many life threatening drug resistant microbial infections. The resultant effects have been prolonged hospital stay, higher cost of alternative therapy, increased mortality, etc. This opinionated review considers the two main concerns in integrated human health risk assessment (i.e., residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes) in various compartments of human environment, as well as clinical dynamics associated with the development and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR). Contributions of quorum sensing, biofilms, enzyme production, and small colony variants in bacteria, among other factors in soil, water, animal farm and clinical settings were also considered. Every potential factor in environmental and clinical settings that brings about AR needs to be identified for the summative effects in overall resistance. There is a need to embrace coordinated multi-locational approaches and interrelationships to track the emergence of resistance in different niches in soil and water versus the hospital environment. The further integration with advocacy, legislation, enforcement, technological innovations and further research input and recourse to WHO guidelines on antibiotic policy would be advantageous towards addressing the emergence of antibiotic resistant superbugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: residual antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; total antibiotic resistance; critical control point; superbug; exposure; health risk assessment residual antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; total antibiotic resistance; critical control point; superbug; exposure; health risk assessment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Adegoke, A.A.; Faleye, A.C.; Singh, G.; Stenström, T.A. Antibiotic Resistant Superbugs: Assessment of the Interrelationship of Occurrence in Clinical Settings and Environmental Niches. Molecules 2017, 22, 29.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top