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Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1095; doi:10.3390/molecules21081095

Beneficial Effects of Trillium govanianum Rhizomes in Pain and Inflammation

1
Department of Pharmacy, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, Dir (U)-18000, Pakistan
2
H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
4
Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, Dir (U)-18000, Pakistan
5
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah 21514, Saudi Arabia
6
Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat, Swat 19200, Pakistan
7
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, Milan 20133, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
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Abstract

Trillium govanianum rhizome is used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional medicine in northern Pakistan. In an attempt to establish its medicinal value, the present research evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of T. govanianum. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions was investigated in the carrageenan induced paw edema assay. The in vitro suppression of oxidative burst of extract, fractions and isolated compounds was assessed through luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The in vivo analgesic activity was assayed in chemical and thermal induced nociceptive pain models. The crude methanol extract and its solvent fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic responses, exhibited by significant amelioration of paw edema and relieve of the tonic visceral chemical and acute phasic thermal nociception. In the oxidative burst assay, based on IC50, the crude methanol extract and n-butanol soluble fraction produced a significant inhibition, followed by chloroform and hexane soluble fractions as compared to ibuprofen. Similarly, the isolated compounds pennogenin and borassoside E exhibited significant level of oxidative burst suppressive activity. The in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as well as the in vitro inhibition of oxidative burst validated the traditional use of T. govanianum rhizomes as a phytotherapeutic remedy for both inflammatory conditions and pain. The observed activities might be attributed to the presence of steroids and steroid-based compounds. Therefore, the rhizomes of this plant species could serve as potential novel source of compounds effective for alleviating pain and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trilliaceae; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; oxidative burst; pennogenin; borassoside E Trilliaceae; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; oxidative burst; pennogenin; borassoside E
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ur Rahman, S.; Adhikari, A.; Ismail, M.; Raza Shah, M.; Khurram, M.; Shahid, M.; Ali, F.; Haseeb, A.; Akbar, F.; Iriti, M. Beneficial Effects of Trillium govanianum Rhizomes in Pain and Inflammation. Molecules 2016, 21, 1095.

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