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Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1087; doi:10.3390/molecules21081087

Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark

1
Biotechnology Center, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa-PB 58051-900, Brazil
2
Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59012-570, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Norbert Latruffe
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Inflammation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3174 KB, uploaded 19 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc) of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%), Indomethacin (10 mg/kg), Bradykinin (6 nmol) and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg) at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o.) for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p.) for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anacardium occidentale; high-performance liquid chromatography; acute inflammation; phenolic compounds; anti-inflammatory activity Anacardium occidentale; high-performance liquid chromatography; acute inflammation; phenolic compounds; anti-inflammatory activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vilar, M.S.A.; de Souza, G.L.; Vilar, D.A.; Leite, J.A.; Raffin, F.N.; Barbosa-Filho, J.M.; Nogueira, F.H.A.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, S.; Moura, T.F.A.L. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark. Molecules 2016, 21, 1087.

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