Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity
AbstractHydroxyphenylalkanes and diarylheptanoids possess potential therapeutic value in different pathophysiological conditions, such as malignancy. In the current study, naturally isolated hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid compounds were investigated for potential chemo-modulatory effects in addition to potential vascular protective roles with doxorubicin. Diarylheptanoids showed stronger antioxidant effects, in comparison to hydroxyphenylalkanes, as demonstrated by DPPH assay and amelioration of CCl4-induced disturbed intracellular GSH/GSSG balance. Shogaol and 4′-methoxygingerol showed considerable cytotoxic effects against HCT116, HeLa, HepG2 and MCF7 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 3.1 to 19.4 µM. Gingerol significantly enhanced the cytotoxic profile of doxorubicin against HepG2 and Huh7, cells decreasing its IC50s by 10- and 4-fold, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was studied using DNA cytometry. Doxorubicin alone induced cell accumulation at S-phase and G2/M-phase, while in combination with gingerol it significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M-phase. Additionally, the vascular protective effect of gingerol against doxorubicin (10 µM) was examined on isolated aortic rings. Co-incubation with 6-gingerol (30 µM) completely blocked the exaggerated vasoconstriction and impaired vascular relaxation induced by doxorubicin. In conclusion, despite its relatively weak antioxidant properties, gingerol protected from DOX-induced vascular damage, apparently not through a ROS scavenging mechanism. Besides, gingerol synergized the cytotoxic effects of DOX against liver cancer cells without influencing the cellular pharmacokinetics. View Full-Text
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Al-Abbasi, F.A.; Alghamdi, E.A.; Baghdadi, M.A.; Alamoudi, A.J.; El-Halawany, A.M.; El-Bassossy, H.M.; Aseeri, A.H.; Al-Abd, A.M. Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity. Molecules 2016, 21, 886.
Al-Abbasi FA, Alghamdi EA, Baghdadi MA, Alamoudi AJ, El-Halawany AM, El-Bassossy HM, Aseeri AH, Al-Abd AM. Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity. Molecules. 2016; 21(7):886.Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Alghamdi, Eman A.; Baghdadi, Mohammed A.; Alamoudi, Abdulmohsin J.; El-Halawany, Ali M.; El-Bassossy, Hany M.; Aseeri, Ali H.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M. 2016. "Gingerol Synergizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin against Liver Cancer Cells and Protects from Its Vascular Toxicity." Molecules 21, no. 7: 886.
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