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Molecules 2016, 21(6), 816; doi:10.3390/molecules21060816

Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng

1
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Nutrex Technology Co., Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 13494, Korea
3
Holistic Bio Co., Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do 13494, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 25 May 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
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Abstract

Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) treatments are non-thermal processing methods that have customarily been employed to enhance the quality and productivity of plant consumables. We aimed to evaluate the effects of UHP treatments on ginseng samples (white ginseng: WG; UHP-treated WG: UWG; red ginseng: RG; UHP-treated RG: URG; ginseng berries: GB; and UHP-treated GB: UGB) using metabolite profiling based on ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). Multivariate data analyses revealed a clear demarcation among the GB and UGB samples, and the phenotypic evaluations correlated the highest antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid compositions with the UGB samples. Overall, eight amino acids, seven organic acids, seven sugars and sugar derivatives, two fatty acids, three notoginsenosides, three malonylginsenosides, and three ginsenosides, were identified as significantly discriminant metabolites between the GB and UGB samples, with relatively higher proportions in the latter. Ideally, these metabolites can be used as quality biomarkers for the assessment of ginseng products and our results indicate that UHP treatment likely led to an elevation in the proportions of total extractable metabolites in ginseng samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panax ginseng; ultrahigh pressure; antioxidant activity; mass spectrometry; multivariate analyses Panax ginseng; ultrahigh pressure; antioxidant activity; mass spectrometry; multivariate analyses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, M.Y.; Singh, D.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Lee, C.H. Ultrahigh Pressure Processing Produces Alterations in the Metabolite Profiles of Panax ginseng. Molecules 2016, 21, 816.

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