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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 584; doi:10.3390/molecules21050584

Encapsulation of Beetroot Pomace Extract: RSM Optimization, Storage and Gastrointestinal Stability

Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
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Academic Editors: Rafael Llorach and Pedro Mena
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 30 April 2016
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Abstract

One of the great problems in food production are surplus by-products, usually utilized for feeding animals and for preparation of dietary fibre or biofuel. These products represent potential sources of bioactive antioxidants and colour-giving compounds which could be used in the pharmaceutical industry and as food additives. In the present study beetroot pomace extract was encapsulated in soy protein by a freeze drying method. Process parameters (core: wall ratio, extract concentration and mixing time) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) in order to obtain the optimum encapsulate (OE) with the highest polyphenol encapsulation efficiency (EE) and radical scavenging activity on DPPH radicals (SA). Using the calculated optimum conditions, the EE (86.14%) and SA (1668.37 μmol Trolox equivalents/100 g) of OE did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) from the predicted ones. The contents of total polyphenols (326.51 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoids (10.23 mg RE/100 g), and betalains (60.52 mg betanin/100 g and 61.33 mg vulgaxanthin-I/100 g), individual content of phenolic compounds and betalains by HPLC, and the ability to reduce Fe3+ ions, i.e., reducing power (394.95 μmol Trolox equivalents/100 g) of OE were determined as well. During three months of storage at room temperature, polyphenol retention was much higher (76.67%) than for betalain pigments, betacyanins (17.77%) and betaxanthins (17.72%). In vitro digestion and release of phenolics from OE showed higher release rate in simulated intestinal fluid than in gastric fluid. These results suggest encapsulation as a contemporary method for valorisation of sensitive bioactive compounds from food industry by-products. View Full-Text
Keywords: beetroot; polyphenols; betalains; encapsulation; RSM; storage; digestion beetroot; polyphenols; betalains; encapsulation; RSM; storage; digestion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tumbas Šaponjac, V.; Čanadanović-Brunet, J.; Ćetković, G.; Jakišić, M.; Djilas, S.; Vulić, J.; Stajčić, S. Encapsulation of Beetroot Pomace Extract: RSM Optimization, Storage and Gastrointestinal Stability. Molecules 2016, 21, 584.

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